Human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will require technologies regenerating resources like air and water, and producing fresh food while recycling consumables and waste. Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs) are artificial ecosystems in which appropriately selected organisms, including bacteria, algae and plants, are assembled in consecutive steps of recycling, to reconvert the crew waste into oxygen, potable water and edible biomass. Plants are considered the most promising biological regenerators to accomplish these functions, thanks to their complementary relationship with humans, however, cultivation in Space requires the knowledge of their response to Space factors (e.g. altered gravity and ionizing radiation) and specific cultivation conditions (e.g. controlled environment, hydroponic systems). The presentation will summarize the research activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Sciences of the University of Naples Federico II on plant-based BLSSs.